Tree and shrub species functional traits in Dujiangyan

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Dataset Abstract

We studied the three leaf traits leaf half-life (LHL), leaf mass per area (LMA) and nitrogen concentration in green leaves (Ngreen) and the wood trait wood density (WD) in 295 individuals belonging to 45 tree or shrub species in a Chinese subtropical forest from September 2006 to January 2009. Using multilevel ANOVA and decomposition of sums of products, we estimated the amount of trait variation and covariation among taxa, functional types (deciduous vs. evergreen), growth forms (trees vs. shrubs), individuals and seasons. We also examined phylogenetic signal and, using phylogenetically independent contrasts, the evolutionary coordination of these traits.

Dataset Design

(1) We extracted one soil core (10 cm deep, 3 cm diameter) beneath 132 individual plants from 12 deciduous and 24 evergreen species in August 2009. Soil samples were oven-dried, ground and analyzed for total N concentration and organic matter concentration.(2) wood density were collected both in September 2006 and April 2007 to determine seasonal change in wood density (WD). We used an increment borer (diameter 5.15 mm, Haglöf, Sweden) to obtain a 5 cm long core (without bark) and measured the fresh volume with a water-displacement method immediately after sampling the core in order to maintain the samples at a constant humidity. The cores were then dried at 60 °C for 72 h and weighed. Wood density was calculated as wood dry mass divided by fresh volume.(3) In September 2006, we randomly selected 3–6 individuals from each species and marked them with aluminum tags. We collected 5–8 fully expanded leaves from the middle of the leaf crown of each individual. For tall trees in which the middle of the crown could not be reached, leaves were collected from the bottom of the crown. Only current-season, fully expanded leaves at the edge of the crown were included in each sample. We used a LI-3100C Area Meter (LI-COR company, Lincoln, NE, USA) to determine the cumulative area of each sample of green leaves excluding petioles. The samples were dried at 60 °C for 72 h and weighed. Leaf mass per area (LMA) was calculated as the ratio between leaf dry mass and leaf area. Total nitrogen content (% dry mass, Ngreen) of leaves was determined with a CHN analyzer (Leco CHNS–932, Leco instruments, St. Joseph, MI, USA).In order to determine seasonal changes in traits, we repeated the sampling and measurements in April 2007.(4) Leaf half-life (LHL) was determined demographically by following the fate of marked leaf cohorts. In April 2007, we selected one or two healthy sunlit branches per individual, marked a terminal section with 5−20 young leaves (occasionally more than 20 leaves for deciduous trees) with colored thread and counted the number of leaves between the marks. We sequentially revisited these branches in August 2007, March 2008, August 2008 and January 2009, added an additional mark at the tip of each branch and counted the living leaves in each of the marked cohorts. Side branches that started growing during the examination period were not taken into account.

Spatial Extent

The study was conducted in a secondary broad-leaved and coniferous mixed subtropical forest in Dujiangyan, Sichuan province, SW China. With the rising slopes of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau to the west and the fertile agricultural plains of the Sichuan basin to the east, the Dujiangyan area is one of eleven biodiversity hotspots in China (Chen, 2000). The climatic conditions are typically subtropical with a dry winter (November–April) and a warm and rainy summer (May–October). The annual average temperature is 15.2 °C and July average temperature is 25 °C. The mean annual precipitation is 1341 mm and the annual average relative humidity is above 80 % (Chen, 2000).The study site covers approximately 22 ha (31°03’43”–31°04’03” N, 103°42’55”–103°43’52” E), within an altitude range of 693–830 m. Previous vegetation survey shows there are 158 species of broad-leaved evergreen, deciduous and coniferous trees and shrubs coexist in the forest (Du, unpublished data). The canopy is dominated by Castanopsis fargesii, Betula luminifera, Quercus serrata and Quercus variabilis. Species nomenclature follows “Flora of China” (ECCAS, 1974-1999). Camellia oleifera and Eurya alata are the most abundant shrub species. The dominant soil types are Leptosols, Regosols and Cambisols from loess-like material, with an average nitrogen concentration of 0.29 % and organic matter concentration of 8.56 %.

Temporal Extent

September 2006 to January 2009.

Taxonomic Extent

We selected 295 individuals that belong to 45 woody angiosperm species representing 19 families, which were commonly found in the forest community. They were classified by functional type: deciduous (20 species) and evergreen (25 species) and by growth form: trees (34 species) and shrubs (11 species).

Freeformat files (1)

Data columns available in the raw data part of this dataset

no
serial number of individuum in Dujiangyan; Datagroup description: Individual Identifier
Data group: Helper
Keywords: object
Values
100
101
102
1
10
cens
consecutive number of the respective census
Data group: Time series
Keywords: date
Values
1
2
3
tag
tag number; Datagroup description: Individual Identifier
Data group: Dujiangyan Individual Identifier
Keywords: object
Values
330966
100000
330975
331508
321380
date
date
Data group: Date time information
Keywords: date
Values
2006-09-20
2006-09-22
2006-09-21
2006-09-24
2006-09-25
long
longitude of GPS location
Data group: Longitude
Keywords: location
Values
103.7153163
103.7150413
103.7153916
103.7150766
103.7151468
lat
latitude of GPS location
Data group: Latitude
Keywords: location
Values
31.04480386
31.04479112
31.04478464
31.04480712
31.0447485
interval
days between two sequential census
Unit: day
Data group: Duration
Keywords: time
Values
14
10
13
1
11
fam
family
Data group: Plant family name
Keywords: plant family, Taxonomic family of species, taxonomy
Values
Araliaceae
Ebenaceae
Anacardiaceae
Cornaceae
Aquifoliaceae
gen
genus; Source: Flora of China, Helge Bruelheide (derived from datagroup) (derived from datagroup)
Data group: Plant genus name
Keywords: Taxonomic genus of species, taxonomy
Values
Celtis
Aralia
Betula
Camellia
Castanopsis
spec
species; Datagroup description: The scientific species fullnames are based on the "Flora of China" identified by Teng Fang and verified by Helge Bruelheide (trees) and Alexandra Efmeier (herbs). Scientific species names consist of epithet and genus. For identification, the Author name and the year of the publications of the description are required.; Source: Flora of China, Helge Bruelheide (derived from datagroup) (derived from datagroup)
Data group: Scientific plant species name
Keywords: species, taxon
Values
Castanopsis carlesii
Betula luminifera
Camellia oleifera
Aralia chinensis
Castanopsis fargesii
ed
evergreen or deciduous; Datagroup description: Leaf habit
Data group: Plant functional group or life form
Keywords: explanatory, functional trait
Values
d
e
gf
growth form
Data group: Plant functional group or life form
Keywords: explanatory, functional trait
Values
smalltree
s
t
Organic
organic matter in the soil
Unit: g/kg
Data group: Soil organic matter
Keywords: explanatory, soil organic matter
Values
104.4676985
106.9340365
107.1951426
109.1101082
110.6272863
Nsoil
soil nitrogen content
Unit: g/kg
Data group: Nitrogen
Keywords: explanatory
Values
0.84
0.8
1.06
0.85
0.93
halflife
leaf half life
Unit: day
Data group: Leaf half life
Keywords: response variable, leaf
Values
1044.6
1005
1024
105
1043.7
caconc
carbon centration in alive leaves
Unit: %
Data group: Carbon
Keywords: response variable
Values
37.29
37.04
35.58
37.33
36.72
haconc
hydrogen centration in alive leaves
Unit: %
Data group: Chemical elements
Keywords: response variable
Values
4.964
5.289
5.201
5.208
5.341
naconc
Nitrogen centration in alive leaves; Instrumentation: CHN analyzer (Leco CHNS–932, Leco instruments, St. Joseph, MI, USA)
Unit: %
Data group: Nitrogen
Keywords: response variable
Values
0.809
0.825
0.864
0.859
0.805
csconc
carbon centration in senesced leaves
Unit: %
Data group: Carbon
Keywords: response variable
Values
35.28
34.52
33.77
35.8
33.43
hsconc
Hydrogen centration in senesced leaves
Unit: %
Data group: Chemical elements
Keywords: response variable
Values
5.06
5.102
4.963
4.783
4.982
nsconc
nitrogen centration in senesced leaves
Unit: %
Data group: Nitrogen
Keywords: response variable
Values
0.528
0.615
0.574
0.584
0.566
larea
leaf area; Instrumentation: LI-3100C Area Meter (LI-COR company, Lincoln, NE, USA) (derived from datagroup)
Unit: cm2
Data group: Leaf area
Keywords: response variable
Values
101.18
100.206
101.621
100.16
101.279
h
plant height
Unit: m
Data group: Plant height
Keywords: response variable
Values
0.6
0.8
10.1
10
1
dia
diameter at 1 m height
Unit: cm2
Data group: Basal diameter
Keywords: response variable
Values
0.3
0.2
0.5
0.6
0.7
cdiam
crown diameter
Unit: m
Data group: Crown architecture
Keywords: response variable
Values
0.4
1
0.8
10
0.5
ctrans
crown transparency
Unit: %
Data group: Crown architecture
Keywords: response variable
Values
20
30
10
15
25
shv
shoot volume
Unit: cm3
Data group: Volume of an object
Values
1.1
10
1
0.7
0.6
shm
shoot biomass
Unit: g
Data group: Above and below ground biomass measurement
Keywords: response variable, aboveground biomass
Values
0.828
1.236
1.088
0.574
0.56
bthick
bark thickness
Unit: mm
Data group: Bark thickness
Keywords: response variable
Values
0.4
0.5
0.1
0.3
0.2
wvol
wood volume
Unit: cm3
Data group: Volume of an object
Values
0.2083
0.21
0.25
0.2
0.17
wm
wood dry mass
Unit: g
Data group: Above and below ground biomass measurement
Keywords: response variable, wood, aboveground biomass
Values
0.133
0.142
0.117
0.1234
0.1387
wwm
wood fresh mass
Unit: g
Data group: Above and below ground biomass measurement
Values
0.207
0.3863
0.1917
0.288
0.355
lleng
leaf length
Unit: cm
Data group: Leaf architecture
Keywords: response variable
Values
10.4
10
10.8
10.5
10.3
lwid
leaf width
Unit: cm
Data group: Leaf architecture
Keywords: response variable
Values
10.3
13.9
0.8
13.3
10.5
ldm
leaf dry mass
Unit: g
Data group: Above and below ground biomass measurement
Keywords: response variable, leaf, aboveground biomass
Values
0.1862
0.0706
0.1705
0.1424
0.1376
lwm
leaf wet mass
Unit: g
Data group: Above and below ground biomass measurement
Values
1.304
1.37
0.805
0.877
1.137
damage
Number of damaged leaves; Instrumentation: my eyes (derived from datagroup); Source: BACCARA herbivory record of 2009 (derived from datagroup)
Data group: Helper
Values
1
12
10
0
11
lno
total number of censored leaves; Instrumentation: my eyes (derived from datagroup); Source: BACCARA herbivory record of 2009 (derived from datagroup)
Data group: Sample size
Values
11
13
10
12
0
dperc
damage percentage; Instrumentation: my eyes (derived from datagroup); Source: BACCARA herbivory record of 2009 (derived from datagroup)
Unit: %
Data group: Herbivore damage
Keywords: response variable
Values
15
12
10
0
1