Data for Schuldt et al. "Biodiversity across trophic levels drives multifunctionality in highly diverse forests"

Usage Rights

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Please contact Andreas Schuldt for usage permission

Dataset Abstract

Human-induced biodiversity change may impair ecosystem functions crucial to human well-being. However, the consequences of this change for ecosystem multifunctionality are poorly understood beyond effects of plant species loss, particularly in regions with high biodiversity across trophic levels. Here, we adopt a multitrophic perspective to analyze how biodiversity affects multifunctionality in biodiverse subtropical forests. Data are from the Comparative Study Plots (CSPs) of BEF-China. We consider 22 independent measurements of nine ecosystem functions central to energy and nutrient flow across trophic levels, as well as diversity predictors based on data on woody plants and heterotrophic organisms (soil fungi, macrofaunal decomposers, herbivores, predators, parasitoids).

Dataset Design

Data on 22 ecosystem function measurements, woody plant species richness and composition, and species richness of heterotrophic organisms. See Schuldt et al. "Biodiversity across trophic levels drives multifunctionality in highly diverse forests" for full description of sampling and processing, and for measurement units of individual variables.

Spatial Extent

Comparative Study Plots

Temporal Extent

2008-2012

Data columns available in the raw data part of this dataset

plot
Number of the Comparative Study Plot; Datagroup description: BEF research plot name; Datagroup description: Reasearch plots of the Biodiversity - Ecosystem functioning experiment (BEF-China). There are three main sites for research plots in the BEF Experiment: Comparative Study Plots (CSP) in the Gutianshan Nature Reserve, having a size of 30x30m^2, measured on the ground. Main Experiment plots have a size of 1 mu, which is about 25x25m^2 in horizontal projection. Pilot Study Plots have a size of 1x1 m^2. Research plots on the main experiment have a "p" in front of their IDs and then a 6 digit code: Plots in the main sites A and B are named according to their position in the original spreadsheet, in which they were designed. They consist of 6 digits: _1st digit_: Site (1:A, 2:B), _digit 2and3_: southwards row: as in spreadsheets the rows are named from the top to the bottom; _digit 4 and 5_: westward column: as in the original spreadsheet, but the letters are converted to numbers (A=01, B=02); _6th digit_: indicator, if the plot has been shifted a quarter mu. Example: "p205260": "p" means that this is a plot that is specified. "2" means, that we are at site B. Now the coordinates of the south - west corner: "0526". Since "e" is the fifth letter of the alphabet, this is Plot E26. The last digit "0" means that this plot was not moved by a quarter of a Mu, as some sites in Site A. The 6th digit can also indicate the subplot within the plot. "5", "6", "7", "8" indicate the northwest, northeast, southeast, and southwest quarter plot respectively.
Data group: BEF research plot name
Keywords: location
Values
CSP05
CSP03
CSP04
CSP02
CSP01
stand_age
plot age as estimated by the age of the 5th largest treeSuccessional age of a forest plot
Data group: Successional age of a forest plot
Keywords: successional age, explanatory
Values
106.2002692
101.3005519
105.7695248
115.542038
21.72052766
elevation
Elevation of the sampled plot, measured with geko201 GPS; Elevation;; ; GIS, Hypsometer, Interpolation from map (derived from datagroup); Instrumentation: GIS, Hypsometer, Interpolation from map (derived from datagroup)
Unit: m asl
Data group: Elevation
Keywords: elevation, co-variable
Values
309
345
310
348
251
slope
Calculated plot mean slope inclination from geomorphological maps
Unit: degree
Data group: Inclination
Keywords: slope inclination
Values
19.2
15.1
27.8
26.44
13.78
aspect
mean aspect in degree calculated from geomorphological maps and SRTM 90 (only CSP15, 24). MOD(360+ARCTAN2(x;y)*(180/pi);360); y = Sinus, x = Cosinus (in degree); for y > 0, x >= y: Arctan2 = Arctan(y/x); x <= -y: Arctan2 = Arctan(y/x) + Pi; all others : Arctan2 = Pi/2 – Arctan(x/y);; for y < 0, x >= -y: Arctan2 = Arctan(y/x); x <= y: Arctan2 = Arctan(y/x) - Pi ; all others: Arctan2 = -Arctan(x/y) - Pi/2
Unit: degree
Data group: Aspect
Keywords: slope aspect
Values
178.99
148.92
177.61
183.78
104.33
pH_H2O
Soil pH
Data group: pH value
Values
4.6
4.3
4.5
4.1
4.4
N_10
Soil nitrogen content
Data group: Nitrogen
Values
0.12
0.1
0.11
0.13
0.15
C_10
Soil carbon content
Data group: Carbon
Values
2.02
1.78
2.03
2.04
1.9
CN_10
Soil cabon to nitrogen ratio
Data group: Carbon Nitrogen ratio
Values
15.75
13.55
15.35
15.8
15.85
temp_jan
Mean January temperature
Unit: °C
Data group: Air temperature
Values
0.656435484
1.602322581
0.630106855
1.753164651
1.836614247
temp_jul
Mean July temperature
Unit: °C
Data group: Air temperature
Values
23.47863105
24.63799395
24.8739375
24.97564046
24.3178461
temp_year
Mean annual temperature
Unit: °C
Data group: Air temperature
Values
16.359869
15.07384393
15.50698834
15.86791467
16.33524909
tree_pc1
Plot-scores of axis 1 of a principal components analysis on woody plant species composition
Data group: Community Composition
Values
0.01405538
0.05504331
-0.01269655
0.04727071
0.05334777
tree_pc2
Plot-scores of axis 2 of a principal components analysis on woody plant species composition
Data group: Community Composition
Values
0.0132021
-0.01180203
-0.008326851
-0.015349629
0.003081248
tree_density
Number of tree and shrub individuals
Unit: count
Data group: Abundance
Keywords: density, abundance, explanatory
Values
1368
245
207
1233
1310
CWM.LA
Community weighted mean of leaf area
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
12390.38576
14987.73602
16633.18034
13164.94243
16315.5045
CWM.SLA
Community weighted mean of specific leaf area
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
10.1138807
10.42045869
10.07333472
10.32489886
10.32156512
CWM.LDMC
Community weighted mean of leaf drys matter content
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
389.8708134
385.1538115
390.5826851
386.007194
394.9991267
CWM.C
Community weighted mean of leaf carbon content
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
46.15086166
45.91197287
46.15404455
45.73329092
44.8758222
CWM.CN
Community weighted mean of leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
27.69149372
30.74261877
36.74685465
37.09174328
32.75753712
CWM.Phenolics
Community weighted mean of leaf phenolics content
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
18.37472913
16.662474
16.56121708
19.23091759
17.54272147
CWMwd
Community weighted mean of wood density
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
0.6214037
0.6374782
0.6339546
0.6181492
0.6164882
CWMvess
Community weighted mean of mean xylem vessel diameter
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
29.99677
29.93907
31.40324
31.62364
34.38193
CWMfibre
Community weighted mean of wood fiber wall thickness
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
1.994872
1.998353
1.942529
1.920819
2.011307
RaoQ.chem.tree
Rao's quadratic entropy based on leaf chemical traits
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
1.860640407
1.28678701
2.057300583
1.580301495
1.819794435
RaoQ.morph.tree
Rao's quadratic entropy based on leaf morphological traits
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
0.777571576
0.614558946
0.973580338
0.615266298
1.057767934
Rao.wood
Rao's quadratic entropy based on wood traits
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
1.933305
2.071733
2.154232
1.92879
1.7889
erosion
estimated erosivity of rain drops
Data group: Deriving kinetic energy from sand loss
Values
1144.763853
1079.797325
1079.578785
1082.115722
1405.029308
fungal_biomass
sum of fungal lipids (18:1 w9c, 18:2 w6,9c)
Unit: nmol g dry soil-1
Data group: Lipid biomass
Keywords: soil lipids, fungal biomass
Values
13.57530643
12.06971171
11.02382746
11.48760207
14.74908662
bacterial_biomass
sum of bacterial lipids (all Gram-, Gram + lipids and actinomycetes)
Unit: nmol g dry soil-1
Data group: Lipid biomass
Keywords: soil lipids, bacterial biomass
Values
107.2121245
121.9331584
109.8378808
27.68380989
18.61324954
betagluco_activity
Soil Beta-glucosidase activity
Unit: nmol activity dry soil-1 hr-1
Data group: Enzyme activity
Keywords: enzyme activity
Values
102.56738
103.85263
137.14897
128.52838
115.5337
n.acetylgluco_activity
Soil N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activity
Unit: nmol activity dry soil-1 hr-1
Data group: Enzyme activity
Keywords: enzyme activity
Values
116.98754
158.14563
149.13986
147.73363
150.78074
acidphosph_activity
Soil Acid Phosphatase activity
Unit: nmol activity dry soil-1 hr-1
Data group: Enzyme activity
Keywords: enzyme activity
Values
1177.7699
1058.5311
1000.4218
1165.2706
1087.8873
xylosidase_activity
Soil Xylosidase activity
Unit: nmol activity dry soil-1 hr-1
Data group: Enzyme activity
Keywords: enzyme activity
Values
116.96692
23.56782
21.83364
18.02248
20.9925
amonif
Ammonification rate
Data group: Ammonification rate
Values
-0.051991711
-0.214131093
0.203834946
-0.149710573
0.155738948
nitrif
Nitrification rate
Data group: Nitrification rate
Values
-0.0003444
-0.002791014
-0.001666578
0.000826708
-0.00269823
leaf.decompo.schima
leaf decomposition constant for Schima superba
Unit: per year
Data group: Decomposition
Keywords: decomposition, response variable
Values
0.34225842
0.317988621
0.32159723
0.366788245
0.336751373
leaf.decompo.plot
leaf decomposition constant plot level
Unit: per year
Data group: Decomposition
Keywords: decomposition, response variable
Values
0.430348553
0.55261643
0.525574274
0.571750264
0.518471444
leaf.decompo.mix
leaf decomposition constant litter bag mixtures
Unit: per year
Data group: Decomposition
Keywords: decomposition, response variable
Values
0.4
0.35
0.42
0.41
0.36
wood.decompo.schima
wood decomposition constant for Schima superba
Data group: Decomposition
Keywords: decomposition, response variable
Values
0.137676942
0.101749716
0.141176543
0.148519223
0.152418071
community_wood_decomp
wood decomposition constant plot level
Data group: Decomposition
Keywords: decomposition, response variable
Values
0.0266
0.0694
0.0642
0.0864
0.0794
ba.incr_big
Increment in stem basal area of woody plants > 10 cm dbh from 2008 to 2012
Data group: Basal area
Values
0.006108336
0.006209535
0.007281749
0.006006717
0.006673776
ba.incr_small
Increment in stem basal area of woody plants > 3 and < 10 cm dbh from 2008 to 2012
Data group: Basal area
Values
0.000651984
0.000739663
0.000730857
0.000574183
0.000648807
mean.herbivory.all
Mean percentage of leaf damage
Data group: Herbivore damage
Values
0.05563178
0.0423975
0.04336268
0.04951973
0.04127864
canopy.herbivory
Mean percentage of leaf damage
Data group: Herbivore damage
Values
6.188965
5.033409
11.753165
10.255686
5.062815
baitoccurence.ants.soil
The occurrence of ants at a bait. Every occurrence of an ant species at a bait was counted as '1'.
Data group: Predation
Values
14
10
12
13
11
spider.broodcells.wasp
The number of wasp (mostly Pompilidae; a few Sphecidae) broodcells, that were provisioned with spiders
Data group: Predation
Values
0
19
18
13
2
caterpillar.broodcells.wasp
The number of parasitized caterpillar wasp broodcells
Data group: Predation
Values
102
115
114
108
10
parasitation.rate
The number of parasitized brood cells divided by the total number of broodcells
Data group: Parasitism
Values
0.044492797
0.025
0.018292683
0.041666667
0.007109005
rich.amf
Number of OTUs of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
13
11
16
10
14
rich.ecm
Number of OTUs of ectomycorrhizal fungi
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
101
105
102
100
107
rich.sapro
Number of OTUs of saprophytic fungi
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
173
167
191
178
185
rich.patho
Number of OTUs of pathogenic fungi
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
15
11
17
12
14
rich.decomp
Number of species of macrofaunal decomposers
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
2
3
1
4
5
rich.tree
Number of species of woody plants
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
29
27
30
25
32
rich.weevil
Number of species of weevils
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
3
2
11
10
12
rich.scoly
Number of species of bark beetles
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
10
15
11
14
12
rich.lepi
Number of species of lepidopteran caterpillars
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
10
16
13
14
12
rich.ceramby
Number of species of longhorn beetles
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
11
1
10
13
12
rich.spider
Number of species of spiders
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
42
28
38
39
41
rich.ant_pred
Number of species of predatory ants
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
13
11
4
12
10
rich.ant_omni
Number of species of omnivorous ants
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
17
18
16
14
19
rich.chilo
Number of species of centipedes
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
4
3
6
11
5
rich.wasp
Number of species of predatory wasps
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
2
1
4
5
3
rich.para
Number of species of parasitoids
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
4
1
3
2
5