Data for Schuldt et al. "Biodiversity across trophic levels drives multifunctionality in highly diverse forests"

Usage Rights

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Please contact Andreas Schuldt for usage permission

Dataset Abstract

Human-induced biodiversity change may impair ecosystem functions crucial to human well-being. However, the consequences of this change for ecosystem multifunctionality are poorly understood beyond effects of plant species loss, particularly in regions with high biodiversity across trophic levels. Here, we adopt a multitrophic perspective to analyze how biodiversity affects multifunctionality in biodiverse subtropical forests. Data are from the Comparative Study Plots (CSPs) of BEF-China. We consider 22 independent measurements of nine ecosystem functions central to energy and nutrient flow across trophic levels, as well as diversity predictors based on data on woody plants and heterotrophic organisms (soil fungi, macrofaunal decomposers, herbivores, predators, parasitoids).

Dataset Design

Data on 22 ecosystem function measurements, woody plant species richness and composition, and species richness of heterotrophic organisms. See Schuldt et al. "Biodiversity across trophic levels drives multifunctionality in highly diverse forests" for full description of sampling and processing, and for measurement units of individual variables.

Spatial Extent

Comparative Study Plots

Temporal Extent

2008-2012

Data columns available in the raw data part of this dataset

plot
Number of the Comparative Study Plot; Datagroup description: BEF research plot name; Datagroup description: Reasearch plots of the Biodiversity - Ecosystem functioning experiment (BEF-China). There are three main sites for research plots in the BEF Experiment: Comparative Study Plots (CSP) in the Gutianshan Nature Reserve, having a size of 30x30m^2, measured on the ground. Main Experiment plots have a size of 1 mu, which is about 25x25m^2 in horizontal projection. Pilot Study Plots have a size of 1x1 m^2. Research plots on the main experiment have a "p" in front of their IDs and then a 6 digit code: Plots in the main sites A and B are named according to their position in the original spreadsheet, in which they were designed. They consist of 6 digits: _1st digit_: Site (1:A, 2:B), _digit 2and3_: southwards row: as in spreadsheets the rows are named from the top to the bottom; _digit 4 and 5_: westward column: as in the original spreadsheet, but the letters are converted to numbers (A=01, B=02); _6th digit_: indicator, if the plot has been shifted a quarter mu. Example: "p205260": "p" means that this is a plot that is specified. "2" means, that we are at site B. Now the coordinates of the south - west corner: "0526". Since "e" is the fifth letter of the alphabet, this is Plot E26. The last digit "0" means that this plot was not moved by a quarter of a Mu, as some sites in Site A. The 6th digit can also indicate the subplot within the plot. "5", "6", "7", "8" indicate the northwest, northeast, southeast, and southwest quarter plot respectively.
Data group: BEF research plot name
Keywords: location
Values
CSP05
CSP01
CSP04
CSP03
CSP02
stand_age
plot age as estimated by the age of the 5th largest treeSuccessional age of a forest plot
Data group: Successional age of a forest plot
Keywords: successional age, explanatory
Values
115.542038
105.7695248
21.72052766
101.3005519
106.2002692
elevation
Elevation of the sampled plot, measured with geko201 GPS; Elevation;; ; GIS, Hypsometer, Interpolation from map (derived from datagroup); Instrumentation: GIS, Hypsometer, Interpolation from map (derived from datagroup)
Unit: m asl
Data group: Elevation
Keywords: elevation, co-variable
Values
310
309
251
348
345
slope
Calculated plot mean slope inclination from geomorphological maps
Unit: degree
Data group: Inclination
Keywords: slope inclination
Values
26.44
15.1
27.8
13.78
19.2
aspect
mean aspect in degree calculated from geomorphological maps and SRTM 90 (only CSP15, 24). MOD(360+ARCTAN2(x;y)*(180/pi);360); y = Sinus, x = Cosinus (in degree); for y > 0, x >= y: Arctan2 = Arctan(y/x); x <= -y: Arctan2 = Arctan(y/x) + Pi; all others : Arctan2 = Pi/2 – Arctan(x/y);; for y < 0, x >= -y: Arctan2 = Arctan(y/x); x <= y: Arctan2 = Arctan(y/x) - Pi ; all others: Arctan2 = -Arctan(x/y) - Pi/2
Unit: degree
Data group: Aspect
Keywords: slope aspect
Values
183.78
177.61
178.99
104.33
148.92
pH_H2O
Soil pH
Data group: pH value
Values
4.4
4.6
4.3
4.1
4.5
N_10
Soil nitrogen content
Data group: Nitrogen
Values
0.13
0.11
0.15
0.12
0.1
C_10
Soil carbon content
Data group: Carbon
Values
2.04
2.02
1.9
2.03
1.78
CN_10
Soil cabon to nitrogen ratio
Data group: Carbon Nitrogen ratio
Values
15.85
15.75
15.8
13.55
15.35
temp_jan
Mean January temperature
Unit: °C
Data group: Air temperature
Values
0.656435484
1.836614247
1.753164651
1.602322581
0.630106855
temp_jul
Mean July temperature
Unit: °C
Data group: Air temperature
Values
24.3178461
24.63799395
23.47863105
24.97564046
24.8739375
temp_year
Mean annual temperature
Unit: °C
Data group: Air temperature
Values
15.07384393
15.50698834
16.359869
16.33524909
15.86791467
tree_pc1
Plot-scores of axis 1 of a principal components analysis on woody plant species composition
Data group: Community Composition
Values
-0.01269655
0.01405538
0.05504331
0.04727071
0.05334777
tree_pc2
Plot-scores of axis 2 of a principal components analysis on woody plant species composition
Data group: Community Composition
Values
0.003081248
0.0132021
-0.008326851
-0.015349629
-0.01180203
tree_density
Number of tree and shrub individuals
Unit: count
Data group: Abundance
Keywords: density, abundance, explanatory
Values
1310
1368
207
245
1233
CWM.LA
Community weighted mean of leaf area
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
16633.18034
14987.73602
13164.94243
16315.5045
12390.38576
CWM.SLA
Community weighted mean of specific leaf area
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
10.32489886
10.07333472
10.32156512
10.42045869
10.1138807
CWM.LDMC
Community weighted mean of leaf drys matter content
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
394.9991267
390.5826851
389.8708134
386.007194
385.1538115
CWM.C
Community weighted mean of leaf carbon content
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
46.15086166
45.73329092
44.8758222
45.91197287
46.15404455
CWM.CN
Community weighted mean of leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
37.09174328
30.74261877
27.69149372
36.74685465
32.75753712
CWM.Phenolics
Community weighted mean of leaf phenolics content
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
19.23091759
17.54272147
16.662474
18.37472913
16.56121708
CWMwd
Community weighted mean of wood density
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
0.6339546
0.6214037
0.6181492
0.6164882
0.6374782
CWMvess
Community weighted mean of mean xylem vessel diameter
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
29.93907
34.38193
29.99677
31.62364
31.40324
CWMfibre
Community weighted mean of wood fiber wall thickness
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
1.998353
1.920819
2.011307
1.942529
1.994872
RaoQ.chem.tree
Rao's quadratic entropy based on leaf chemical traits
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
1.580301495
1.819794435
1.860640407
1.28678701
2.057300583
RaoQ.morph.tree
Rao's quadratic entropy based on leaf morphological traits
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
1.057767934
0.777571576
0.614558946
0.973580338
0.615266298
Rao.wood
Rao's quadratic entropy based on wood traits
Data group: Functional biodiversity
Values
1.92879
2.071733
2.154232
1.7889
1.933305
erosion
estimated erosivity of rain drops
Data group: Deriving kinetic energy from sand loss
Values
1082.115722
1079.578785
1079.797325
1405.029308
1144.763853
fungal_biomass
sum of fungal lipids (18:1 w9c, 18:2 w6,9c)
Unit: nmol g dry soil-1
Data group: Lipid biomass
Keywords: soil lipids, fungal biomass
Values
13.57530643
11.02382746
11.48760207
12.06971171
14.74908662
bacterial_biomass
sum of bacterial lipids (all Gram-, Gram + lipids and actinomycetes)
Unit: nmol g dry soil-1
Data group: Lipid biomass
Keywords: soil lipids, bacterial biomass
Values
27.68380989
18.61324954
109.8378808
121.9331584
107.2121245
betagluco_activity
Soil Beta-glucosidase activity
Unit: nmol activity dry soil-1 hr-1
Data group: Enzyme activity
Keywords: enzyme activity
Values
102.56738
103.85263
128.52838
137.14897
115.5337
n.acetylgluco_activity
Soil N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activity
Unit: nmol activity dry soil-1 hr-1
Data group: Enzyme activity
Keywords: enzyme activity
Values
150.78074
149.13986
158.14563
147.73363
116.98754
acidphosph_activity
Soil Acid Phosphatase activity
Unit: nmol activity dry soil-1 hr-1
Data group: Enzyme activity
Keywords: enzyme activity
Values
1165.2706
1087.8873
1058.5311
1000.4218
1177.7699
xylosidase_activity
Soil Xylosidase activity
Unit: nmol activity dry soil-1 hr-1
Data group: Enzyme activity
Keywords: enzyme activity
Values
18.02248
23.56782
20.9925
21.83364
116.96692
amonif
Ammonification rate
Data group: Ammonification rate
Values
0.155738948
-0.051991711
0.203834946
-0.214131093
-0.149710573
nitrif
Nitrification rate
Data group: Nitrification rate
Values
-0.001666578
0.000826708
-0.00269823
-0.002791014
-0.0003444
leaf.decompo.schima
leaf decomposition constant for Schima superba
Unit: per year
Data group: Decomposition
Keywords: decomposition, response variable
Values
0.32159723
0.34225842
0.317988621
0.366788245
0.336751373
leaf.decompo.plot
leaf decomposition constant plot level
Unit: per year
Data group: Decomposition
Keywords: decomposition, response variable
Values
0.571750264
0.430348553
0.518471444
0.55261643
0.525574274
leaf.decompo.mix
leaf decomposition constant litter bag mixtures
Unit: per year
Data group: Decomposition
Keywords: decomposition, response variable
Values
0.42
0.41
0.4
0.36
0.35
wood.decompo.schima
wood decomposition constant for Schima superba
Data group: Decomposition
Keywords: decomposition, response variable
Values
0.101749716
0.141176543
0.152418071
0.148519223
0.137676942
community_wood_decomp
wood decomposition constant plot level
Data group: Decomposition
Keywords: decomposition, response variable
Values
0.0864
0.0794
0.0642
0.0266
0.0694
ba.incr_big
Increment in stem basal area of woody plants > 10 cm dbh from 2008 to 2012
Data group: Basal area
Values
0.006209535
0.006673776
0.006006717
0.007281749
0.006108336
ba.incr_small
Increment in stem basal area of woody plants > 3 and < 10 cm dbh from 2008 to 2012
Data group: Basal area
Values
0.000648807
0.000651984
0.000574183
0.000730857
0.000739663
mean.herbivory.all
Mean percentage of leaf damage
Data group: Herbivore damage
Values
0.0423975
0.04336268
0.04127864
0.04951973
0.05563178
canopy.herbivory
Mean percentage of leaf damage
Data group: Herbivore damage
Values
5.033409
6.188965
10.255686
11.753165
5.062815
baitoccurence.ants.soil
The occurrence of ants at a bait. Every occurrence of an ant species at a bait was counted as '1'.
Data group: Predation
Values
12
14
11
13
10
spider.broodcells.wasp
The number of wasp (mostly Pompilidae; a few Sphecidae) broodcells, that were provisioned with spiders
Data group: Predation
Values
2
18
19
13
0
caterpillar.broodcells.wasp
The number of parasitized caterpillar wasp broodcells
Data group: Predation
Values
114
102
10
108
115
parasitation.rate
The number of parasitized brood cells divided by the total number of broodcells
Data group: Parasitism
Values
0.007109005
0.041666667
0.018292683
0.025
0.044492797
rich.amf
Number of OTUs of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
11
13
10
16
14
rich.ecm
Number of OTUs of ectomycorrhizal fungi
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
105
102
101
107
100
rich.sapro
Number of OTUs of saprophytic fungi
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
173
167
185
178
191
rich.patho
Number of OTUs of pathogenic fungi
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
11
17
14
12
15
rich.decomp
Number of species of macrofaunal decomposers
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
1
2
5
4
3
rich.tree
Number of species of woody plants
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
25
30
32
29
27
rich.weevil
Number of species of weevils
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
10
2
11
3
12
rich.scoly
Number of species of bark beetles
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
11
12
15
10
14
rich.lepi
Number of species of lepidopteran caterpillars
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
10
12
13
14
16
rich.ceramby
Number of species of longhorn beetles
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
11
12
1
13
10
rich.spider
Number of species of spiders
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
38
39
28
41
42
rich.ant_pred
Number of species of predatory ants
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
11
13
12
10
4
rich.ant_omni
Number of species of omnivorous ants
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
16
18
19
17
14
rich.chilo
Number of species of centipedes
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
6
11
4
5
3
rich.wasp
Number of species of predatory wasps
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
3
1
4
5
2
rich.para
Number of species of parasitoids
Unit: total per plot
Data group: Taxonomic biodiversity
Values
4
5
2
1
3